What is the AQL?

Raytac Corporation
A BT4.1 & BT4.2 module maker based on Nordic nRF51 & nRF52 solution 
(nRF51822 & nRF51422 & nRF52832 & nRF51802)
Tel: +886.2.3234.0208
Quoted from
The “AQL tables” are statistical tools at the disposal of product inspections. They help determine two key elements:
  • How many samples should be inspected?
  • Where is the limit between acceptability and refusal, when it comes to defective products?
The need for an objective measurement of quality
In virtually every production batch, there will be defective products. It is true even after the manufacturer has checked each individual product and has repaired the defective ones.
Thus, in a supplier/buyer relationship, the supplier cannot be expected to deliver defect-free goods. However, the buyer wants to control the quality of purchased goods, since he does not want too many defects. But what does “too many” mean?
How to set the limit between acceptability and refusal in a way that can be agreed upon and measured?

Definition and application of ‘AQL’
The limit, as described above, is called the ‘AQL’. It stands for ‘Acceptance Quality Limit’, and is defined as the “quality level that is the worst tolerable” (ISO 2859 standard).
For example: “I want no more than 1.5% defective items in the whole order quantity” means the AQL is 1.5%.
In practice, three types of defects are distinguished. For most consumer goods, the limits are:
  • 0% for critical defects (totally unacceptable: a user might get harmed, or regulations are not respected).
  • 2.5% for major defects (these products would usually not be considered acceptable by the end user).
  • 4.0% for minor defects (there is some departure from specifications, but most users would not mind it).
These proportions vary in function of the product and its market. Components used in building an airplane are subject to much lower AQL limits.

Getting familiar with the AQL tables
Before using the AQL tables, you should decide on three parameters:
  • The ‘lot size’. If you ordered different products, the quantity of each product is a lot size, and separate inspections should be carried out for each lot. If you ordered only one product, the lot size is your total order quantity.
  • The inspection level. Different inspection levels will command different number of samples to inspect. In this article, we will stick to the so-called “level II”, under “normal severity”.
  • The AQL level appropriate for your market. If your customers accept very few defects, you might want to set a lower AQL for both major and minor defects.
There are basically two tables. The first one tells you which ‘code letter’ to use. Then, the code letter will give you the sample size and the maximum numbers of defects that can be accepted.
First table: sample size code letters
How to read this table? It is very easy.
If you follow my example, I assume your ‘lot size’ is comprised between 3,201pcs and 10,000pcs, and that your inspection level is ‘II’. Consequently, the code letter is “L”.
Second table: single sampling plans for level II inspection (normal severity)
How to read this table?
Your code letter is “L”, so you will have to draw 200pcs randomly from the total lot size.
Besides, I assume you have set your AQL at 2.5% for major defects and 4.0% for minor defects. Therefore, here are the limits: the products are accepted if NO MORE than 10 major defects AND NO MORE than 14 minor defects are found.
For example, if you find 15 major defects and 12 minor defects, the products are refused. If you find 3 major defects and 7 minor defects, they are accepted.
Frequently asked questions about AQL
“What are the reduced and tightened inspection severities?”
They are designed to be used in very specific situations, when a producer is particularly reliable, or on the contrary fails too often. In practice, these severities are used in less than 1% of QC inspections.
The normal severity already allows for a good variation of sample sizes. In the vast majority of cases, third-party inspectors follow only the normal severity.

“So, basically I have to authorize the factory to produce some defects?”
Yes, some defects, since a factory cannot reasonably be expected to turn out 100% good quality.
However, it does not mean the buyer tolerates everything as long as the number of defects are below the AQL limits. Please see below the note issued in the ISO2859 standard:
“Although individual lots with quality as bad as the acceptance quality limit may be accepted with fairly high probability, the designation of an acceptance quality limit does not suggest that this is a desirable quality level. Sampling schemes […] are designed to encourage suppliers to have process averages consistently better than the AQL.”

About Bluetooth 5

Raytac Corporation

A BT4.1 & BT4.2 module maker based on Nordic nRF51 & nRF52 solution 

(nRF51822 & nRF51422 & nRF52832 & nRF51802)

Tel: +886.2.3234.0208

Simple Summary

Scheduled to be released in end or 2016 or early 2017

1.Quadruples range

Extending range will deliver robust, reliable Internet of Things (IoT) connections that make full-home and building and outdoor use cases a reality. The expect power consumption of BT5  is expected to remain the same level as BT4.2. 

BT4.2: 10~100M

BT5.X: Upto 400M

2.Doubles speed

Higher speeds will send data faster and optimize responsiveness. Increasing broadcast capacity will propel the next generation of “connectionless” services like beacons and location-relevant information and navigation.

BT4.2: 1M bit/Sec

BT5.X: 2M bit/Sec

3. Data broadcasting capacity by 800%

Bluetooth 5,will quadruple range and double speed of low energy connections while increasing the capacity of connectionless data broadcasts by 800%. 

According to SIG’s news press

 “Increasing operation range will enable connections to IoT devices that extend far beyond the walls of a typical home, while increasing speed supports faster data transfers and software updates for devices. And now with the ability to broadcast a much richer set of information, Bluetooth 5 will make beacons, location awareness, and other connectionless services an even more relevant part of an effortless and seamless IoT experience” 

“With the major boost in broadcast messaging capacity, the data being transferred will be richer, more intelligent. This will redefine the way Bluetooth devices transmit information, moving away from the app-paired-to-device model to a connectionless IoT where there is less need to download an app or connect the app to a device.”

To redefine the behavior of moving away from app-paired-to-device model must bring a revolutionary user behavior and environment from 2017. That is the most critical point for all product design or related Bluetooth industry need to pay highly attention!